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Carotid artery stenosis - self-care

Carotid artery stenosis - self-care

Description

The carotid arteries provide the main blood supply to the brain. They are located on each side of your neck. You can feel their pulse under your jawline.

Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to stroke.

Whether or not your doctor recommended surgery to unblock narrowed arteries, medicines and lifestyle changes can:

  • Prevent further narrowing of these important arteries
  • Prevent a stroke from occurring

Alternative Names

Carotid artery disease - self-care

Lifestyle changes

Making certain changes to your diet and exercise habits can help treat carotid artery disease. These healthy changes can also help you maintain a healthy weight and manage high blood pressure and cholesterol.

Eat a healthy, low-fat diet.

  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Fresh or frozen are better choices than canned, which may have added salt or sugar.
  • Choose high-fiber foods, such as whole-grain breads, pastas, cereals, and crackers.
  • Eat lean meats and skinless chicken and turkey.
  • Eat fish twice a week. Fish is good for your arteries.
  • Cut back on saturated fat, cholesterol, and added salt and sugar.

Be more active.

  • Talk with your doctor first to make sure you are healthy enough to exercise.
  • Walking is an easy way to add activity to your day. Start with 10 to 15 minutes a day.
  • Start gradually and build up to 150 minutes of exercise a week.

Stop smoking, if you smoke. Quitting reduces your risk of stroke. Talk with your doctor about quit-smoking programs.

Medicines

If lifestyle changes do not lower your cholesterol and blood pressure enough, medicines may be prescribed.

  • Cholesterol medicineshelp your liver produce less cholesterol. This prevents plaque, a waxy deposit, from building up in the carotid arteries.
  • Blood pressure medicinesrelax your blood vessels, make your heart beat slower, and help your body get rid of extra fluid. This helps lower high blood pressure.
  • Blood-thinning medicines, such as aspirin or clopidogrel, decrease the chance of blood clots forming and help lower your risk of stroke.

These medicines can have side effects. If you notice side effects, be sure to tell your doctor. Your doctor may change the dose or type of medicine you take to help reduce side effects. Never stop taking medicines or take less medicine without talking to your doctor first.

Follow-up care

Your doctor will want to monitor you and see how well your treatment is working. At these visits, your doctor may:

  • Use a stethoscope to listen to the blood flow in your neck
  • Check your blood pressure
  • Check your cholesterol levels

You may also have imaging tests done to see if the blockages in your carotid arteries are becoming worse.

When to call the doctor

Having carotid artery disease puts you at risk for stroke. If you think you have symptoms of stroke, go to the emergency room or call your local emergency number (such as 9-1-1) immediately. Symptoms of a stroke include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of sensation
  • Problems with speech and language
  • Vision loss
  • Weakness in one part of your body

Get help as soon as symptoms occur. The sooner you receive treatment, the better your chance for recovery. With a stroke, every second of delay can result in more brain injury.

References

Brott TG, Halperin JL, Abbara S, et al. American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, et al. 2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Vasc Med. 2011;16:35-77.

Brott TG, Hobson RW 2nd, Howard G, Roubin GS, Clark WM, Brooks W, et al. Stenting verses endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:11-23.


Review Date: 4/9/2014
Reviewed By: Glenn Gandelman, MD, MPH, FACC Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, and in private practice specializing in cardiovascular disease in Greenwich, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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